This review of the literature represents many systematic reviews and meta-analyses, primary studies and thousands of people. To some extent the results illustrate that many population health and public health programs are associated with benefit to various populations, particularly related to outcomes such as physical activity and mental health symptoms. However, there remains cause for concern given some of the evidence suggests that various interventions may in fact widen health disparities. Much more research is needed to fully explore if and how interventions impact heath outcomes in different sub populations. However, the evidence presented here provides some direction for moving forward with practice, draws attention to some areas that require ongoing evaluation, and identifies some practices that may not be producing the expected impact and therefore should be examined critically in terms of future investment. While a great deal has been accomplished in population and public health programs there is still much work to be done!