PHIRN: Population Health Improvement Research Network

Appendix 5. Definitions of Categories used in Data Base for Content Analysis

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Appendix 5. Definitions of Categories used in Data Base for Content Analysis


Database category

Definition, notes,  examples

Bibliographic details:

 

Name

Authors

Year

Publication year of journal article

Title

Title of article

Journal, Vol, No,  page

Journal reference

Data Base

Article identified from which data base search

Type of document:

The PubMed, Psychinfo, Embasse, Ovid Health Star search only included journal articles, but in the other databases we searched more broadly, retrieving a few dissertation abstracts; also grey literature documents which are entered separately , below

Journal article

1=yes; 0=no

Other

1=yes; 0=no
Specify  which other, by checking one of the items below

  • Dissertation

1=yes; 0=no

  • Letter to editor

1=yes; 0=no

  • Government report (federal, provincial, municipal)

1=yes; 0=no

  • Report from NGO or coalition of NGOS

Including Research Institutes, e.g., Centre for Policy Alternative
1=yes; 0=no

  • Reports from Think tank/Research Networks

1=yes; 0=no

  • Educational or promotional pamphlet or material

1=yes; 0=no

  • Web-site content other than report

1=yes; 0=no

  • Other

1=yes; 0=no

  • Other, specify

1=yes; 0=no

Funding source:

For eg, SSHRC, CIHR, Ontario HIV Treatment Network, MOHLTC etc.

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Location:

Where the research was conducted, location of the study population; the following categories are not exclusive; e.g., the location might be ‘Toronto’; and ‘other urban Ontario’

Ontario -all

Does the document report on/describe the Ontario population as a whole, e.g. cancer rates in Ontario?
1=yes; 0=no

Ontario unclear

Is it unclear from the abstract where in Ontario the research was conducted?
1=yes; 0=no

Ontario - urban

Was the study/research conducted in a city/cities in Ontario?
1=yes; 0=no

Toronto

Is the city of Toronto or another part of the GTA, e.g., Mississauga mentioned?
1=yes; 0=no

Other urban Ontario

If Ontario – urban
Are other cities in Ontario mentioned as the site of the research
 (e.g. Ottawa? )
1=yes; 0=no

Which other urban

Please list the other cities:

If city names not provided (e.g., three small towns in eastern Ontario) enter ‘unspecified’

Ontario - rural

Was the study conducted in a rural area of Ontario e.g., Prince Edward County?
1=yes; 0=no
Study was conducted in a rural area (unless also specified as ‘northern Ontario’, in which case enter separately, see below)

Northern Ontario

Was the study conducted in an area that is described as ‘northern Ontario’ e.g., ‘six northern communities’?
1=yes; 0=no

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Other ON regions

Is there insufficient information in the abstract for you to determine which specific region or regions of Ontario were involved, but enough to know that it wasn’t Toronto (e.g., data from five different hospitals across Ontario)?
1=yes; 0=no

Ontario Indian reserve

Was the study conducted in an Ontario Indian Reserve or more than one Indian Reserves?
1=yes; 0=no

Specify Indian reserve(s)

If a specific reserve is mentioned, enter the name:

(List of Indian reserves in Ontario is available)

Ontario + other Canada

Does the abstract compare Ontario with another province or territory (e.g., income in Ontario and Nunavut)?

1=yes; 0=no

Ontario + international

Does the abstract compare Ontario with a population group outside of Canada, e.g., smoking rates in Ontario and California?
1=yes; 0=no

Canada -all

Does the document report on/describe the Canadian population as a whole, e.g. homelessness in Canada?
1=yes; 0=no

NOTE: This category includes studies in which data are collected from Canada as a whole; or issues are discussed as Canada-wide, including e.g. policy papers focusing on health equity policies  (in the first iteration of the abstracts database, many of these ended up in the ‘unsure’ category)

Other

Combinations of locations that are not captured above, or any other unique locations that are worth noting, e.g. Toronto and Vancouver

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Author information

Affiliation and discipline of first author
First author’s academic discipline/area of expertise (e.g., Department of Geography); if not available in the article, we ‘google’ the author and to find it. 

Discipline (first author) in health

Is the first author’s discipline/area of work within health?
1=yes; 0=no

Specify health discipline

If yes, please insert brief descriptor, e.g. ‘cardiology’, ‘nursing’, ‘public health’ and code 1=yes; 0=no

Discipline (first author) other

Is the first author’s discipline/area of work outside health?
1=yes; 0=no

Specify other discipline

If yes, please insert the descriptor, e.g., ‘geography’; ‘social work’ and code 1=yes;0=no

Affiliation of 1st author: university

Is the first author affiliated with a university,
1=yes; 0=no

Specify university

If yes, please insert brief descriptor, e.g., University of Windsor; code 1=yes; 0=no

Affiliation of 1st author: other than university

Is the first author affiliated with a NGO, organization, research institute, workplace?
1=yes; 0=no

Specify other affiliation

If yes, please insert brief descriptor, e.g., Statistics Canada; Centre for Social Policy Alternative and code 1=yes; 0=no

Key research question, focus

After reading the abstract, extract/summarize in short sentence the main purpose or objective

Type of research:

 

The following cells are used to categorize the type or key focus of the research: e.g., is an intervention described, or is the focus on policy; some overlap might occur.

Intervention

Does the abstract report on an intervention?
1=yes; 0=no

Population Health Intervention

If yes: Is this a population health intervention?
1=yes; 0=no

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Specify other type of intervention

If not a population health intervention, what type of intervention? Insert very brief one or two word descriptors (Not sure about this one at this stage, Determine the type of intervention, for example if it is  screening, surveillance, disease or Injury prevention etc; and code 1=yes;0=no

Evaluation of intervention?

Does the abstract report on the evaluation of an intervention?
1=yes; 0=no

Policy research

Is the key focus to examine policies, change policies, propose policies, or suggest development of policies?
1=yes; 0=no

Theoretical

Does the abstract presenttheoretical concepts or frameworks or models in relation to health equity, inequity or disparity?
1=yes; 0=no

Epidemiological

Does the abstract present data about the prevalence of an illness, or a condition in relation to other figures, such as income, homelessness; or present morbidity or mortality figures; or the incidence of a condition; or report on health care utilization in relation to a particular condition; or…..

1=yes; 0=no

Needs assessment

Does the abstract focus on assessing  the needs of a population or population group?
1=yes; 0=no

Literature review

Is this an abstract of a review of literature?
1=yes; 0=no

Explorative, descriptive, experience-based

Is this an abstract that focuses on exploring an issue with the population that is experiencing it, and the different factors that might be associated with it,  (frequently done in qualitative studies?
1=yes; 0=no

Other:

Does this study have a different focus that cannot be captured by any of the above? e.g., Program description

1=yes; 0=no

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Notes about type of research and data sources

Is there anything worth mentioning about the specific study, a question…. also include here if a specific survey or data source was used (e.g. CCHS, administrative data)

Key methods and data sources

Main method used, more specific than the focus of the research

Quantitative - collecting new  data for the study 

1=yes; 0=no
Does the study collect new quantitative data, e.g. survey designed specifically for this study?

Quantitative - analyzing existing data (see below)

Does the study use data that were collected by others, such as Statistics Canada , hospitals?
1=yes; 0=no

  • Census data

1=yes; 0=no

  • Canadian Community Health Survey (CCSH)

1=yes; 0=no

  • OHIP administrative data

1=yes; 0=no

  • Hospital administrative data (charts, admissions)

1=yes; 0=no

  • Cancer Registry

1=yes; 0=no

  • Other

Other existing databases
1=yes; 0=no

  • Specify other

Which other data source was used?

Longitudinal, cohort,

Does the study report on data that were collected by following a group of people over time and provide comparison/s after a specific time period?
1=yes; 0=no

Case study

Is a case study design mentioned, or is the study using multiple data sources to explain what is happening at one location, e.g., a hospital, a service centre?
1=yes; 0=no

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Qualitative

Does the study use mostly qualitative methods?
 1=yes; 0=no

Mixed methods

Does the study specify that mixed methods were used, particularly a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods?
 1=yes; 0=no

Other

Is another design evident, or the design not clear?
1=yes; 0=no

Other, and comments about method or design

Use this cell to capture some of the methods that were used; (e.g., focus group, testing a model), in case we want to look at that later in more detail; also for questions or additional comments

Sub-populations, target groups

Sub-populations experiencing inequities in health, for example, sub-population of low SES, Aboriginal, immigrant background

Sub-pop experiencing inequities?

Are any subpopulations mentioned that are experiencing inequities? (Mutliples are likely)
1=yes; 0=no

  • Low SES

1=yes; 0=no
Is the subpopulation under study described as having low income, low socio economic status (do not make assumption, if the population, e.g. is single mothers, or newcomers: unless SES is specifically mentioned, you cannot assume that SES was studied as a factor)

  • Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit, Métis

Was the subpopulation described as Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit, Métis, Indian?
1=yes; 0=no

  • Immigrant/newcomer; refugees

Was the subpopulation described as immigrant/newcomer/refugee?
1=yes; 0=no

Only code if specified. For example, if ‘Chinese’ is mentioned, it does not mean that the focus is on immigrant issues.

  • Racial/ethnic minority

Was the subpopulation described as racial/ethnic minority?
1=yes; 0=no

Only code if specified; Also code as ‘yes’ if racial discrimination was the specific focus of the article

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

  • Women

Was the subpopulation described as women?

1=yes; 0=no

Also code this as ‘yes’ if gender inequity was the specific focus of the article.

  • Older population, seniors

Was the subpopulation described as seniors?
1=yes; 0=no

 

  • Infants, children, youth

Was the subpopulation described as infants, children, youth, adolescents, teens?
1=yes; 0=no

  • Disability

Was the subpopulation described as having either a physical or an intellectual impairment or disability?

1=yes; 0=no

  • Mental illness, depression

Was the subpopulation described as having a mental illness, including depression, mood disorders?
1=yes; 0=no

  • Homeless

Was the subpopulation described as being homeless, living in homeless shelters, insecurely or inadequately housed, transient?
1=yes; 0=no

  • Multiple

Does the abstract/author address more than one group; or generically speak of ’equity groups’ or ‘disadvantaged groups’ or ‘excluded groups’,  without specifying which?
1=yes; 0=no

  • Other, or specific minority group mentioned

Is a specific population group mentioned that is not included above? If so, enter here:
Also, write down specific minority group, e.g., you checked: ethnic minority, the article mentioned a study on Chinese population in Toronto. Write down: Chinese

Health focus explicit?

Does the article have a clear focus on health? (this is very likely, because during the pre-screening of abstracts process, articles likely were eliminated if they did not focus on health)
1=yes; 0=no

Database category

Definition, notes, examples

Health Outcome
Health issue: (which)

Which population outcomes or health issues are addressed in this item?
Enter using short two or three words max per item. Specify, for example if it is mental health issue, cancer, injury, cardiovascular problem, violence etc; and code 1=yes; 0=no

Health equity/inequity?

Does the article focus in anyway on a health inequity ? (Again, this is very likely, because during the pre-screening of abstracts process, articles likely were eliminated if they did not focus on health)
1=yes; 0=no

SDOH

Does the article address one or more social determinants of health?
1=yes; 0=no

Which of the following SDOH does this study address (check one or more below)

  • Income

1=yes; 0=no

  • Immigrant status

1=yes; 0=no

  • Aboriginal origin

1=yes; 0=no

  • Health Service Access

1=yes; 0=no

  • Access to health service/health care service/medication

1=yes; 0=no

  • Service utilization

1=yes; 0=no

  • Health service utilization

1=yes; 0=no

  • Health care service use

1=yes; 0=no

  • Health information

1=yes; 0=no

  • Palliative care

1=yes; 0=no

  • Food insecurity

1=yes, 0=no

  • Stigma, self-esteem, identity and health

1=yes; 0=no

  • Technology and health

1=yes; 0=no

  • Mammogram and cancer

1=yes; 0=no

  • Pap-test

1=yes;0=no

  • Health planning

1=yes; 0=no

  • Diversity

1=yes; 0=no

  • Housing

1=yes; 0=no

  • Language knowledge

1=yes; 0=no

  • Race, visible minority status

1=yes; 0=no

  • Gender

1=yes; 0=no

  • Ethnicity

1=yes; 0=no

  • Physical environment, neighbourhood

1=yes; 0=no

  • Age

1=yes; 0=no

  • Education & Literacy

1=yes; 0=no

  • SES

1=yes; 0=no

  • Employment

1=yes; 0=no

  • Social support

1=yes; 0=no

  • Culture

1=yes; 0=no

  • Ability

1=yes; 0=no

  • Sexual orientation

1=yes; 0=no

  • All

1=yes; 0=no

  • Specific SDOH not evident

1=yes; 0=no

  • Other SDOH

1=yes; 0=no

  • Which other

Specify which other SDOH was addressed

DOH individual lifestyle, behaviour

Does the study address any of the individual lifestyle or behavioural determinants of health?
1=yes; 0=no

Which of the following  health behaviours does this article address (check one or more below)

  • Healthy eating

1=yes; 0=no

  • Physical activity

1=yes; 0=no

  • Substance use, alcohol

1=yes; 0=no

  • Smoking

1=yes; 0=no

  • Screening practices, adherence to medical advice

1=yes; 0=no

  • Helmet use

1=yes; 0=no

  • Caffeine

1=yes; 0=no

  • Breastfeeding

1=yes; 0=no

  • Practicing safe sex

1=yes; 0=no

  • Health behaviour  Intervention

1=yes; 0=no

  • Health promotion

1=yes; 0=no

  • Other

1=yes; 0=no

  • Other, specify

Write down, which other health behaviour

Recommendations and/or key finding

After reading abstract, summarize or extract conclusion, key finding, or copy.  Brief- one or two short sentences max.

Comments

Enter here anything else worth noting about the article; including why it should be kept if it doesn’t meet original criteria; or not; or why it might be a good fit with the questions, etc. 

Decision about inclusion

Decision to keep, discard or unsure about the article

Keep

If focus on health equity in anyway captured in all the categories above (sub-population, Ontario population)
1=yes; 0=no

Discard

If not Canada, not health related, or no clear equity focus
1=yes; 0=no

Not sure

If seems to be addressing important theoretical or policy issues in relation to health in/equity, applying it to the whole of Canada, with a possible focus on Ontario as well. We also kept a couple as ‘not sure’, if the authors were involved with PHIRN (co-investigators)
1=yes; 0=no

 

Article reports on same study data

Enter here articles that seem to overlap considerably, same authors reporting on same findings with only a few differences- enter the reference (1st author) to the item that might be reporting on the same study.

GOT ARTICLE

Insert here articles that have already been obtained, to avoid duplicating the search.
1=yes; 0=no

Last Updated ( Friday, 23 September 2011 14:52 )